Tinytag Instrumentation data loggers were used with solarimeter sensors, while Plus 2 loggers were used to measure outdoor temperatures.
Paul Baker is a consultant for Historic England, and a Senior
Lecturer in Dept. Construction and Surveying at Glasgow Caledonian
University. Paul has around 20 years experience of using Tinytags,
including in his work at the Building Research Establishment, and
recommendeds Tinytag data loggers as part of this project.
Historic England is the public body that helps people care for,
enjoy and celebrate England's spectacular historic environment.
Following 2015 floods in Appleby, Cumbria, Historic England has
been working with Cumbria Action for Sustainability (CAfS) and
partners to promote best practice in improving flood resilience and
energy efficiency of buildings in the town. Part of the project
included the rehabilitation of a house in the town centre as an
The property at 33A Castle Street (listed Grade II) is a three
storey wing of a late 18th century house, and was flooded in
2015.The aim of the exemplar project is to show how a house of
traditional construction can be made more resilient against
flooding and energy efficient using only traditional and
sustainable materials. Building Conservation and Research Team
(BCRT) is contributing to this project by evaluating the
performance of the building before and after rehabilitation. As a
first step, the thermal performance of the existing building
envelope has been determined by co-heating and air pressurisation
tests, as well as in situ U-value measurements of the walls, roof
and ground floor. In addition, moisture profiles in the building
fabric have been assessed and mapped. These tests and measurements
will be repeated once the rehabilitation project has been completed
and will enable the improvements to be quantified.
When the building is reoccupied, long-term monitoring of
internal and external environmental parameters, internal air
quality, moisture profiles and energy use will be carried out. And
if the building should unfortunately be flooded again, the data
acquired will enable the resilience of the rehabilitated building
to be assessed.
As part of the research, Paul recommended the use of three
Tinytag TGPR-1001 Re-Ed
millivolt loggers, used with Campbell Scientific solarimeters which
record sun and sky solar radiation. Several robust Plus 2 TGP-4520 data
loggers with thermistor probes were also used to measure outside
air and building wall surface temperatures. Data is exported to
Excel prior to applying a calibration factor.
This outdoor data is used in combination with indoor
measurements of air and surface temperatures, heat flows through
walls, and electrical power (heaters etc.) An overall heat loss and
a solar gain factor were calculated, which enable an energy rating
to be determined. This also gives a a base line to estimate
improvements in energy efficiency when improvements to the
insulation etc. are made. The individual heat flow measurements and
temperature differences across the walls, etc. are used to
calculate U-values: the lower the U-value the better the insulation
of the building element.
Tinytags were ideal for recording the outdoor measurements; as
standalone battery powered units, they avoided the practical
difficulties of hard-wiring back to an indoor logging system. The
logger memory is sufficient to use a short logging interval (5
minutes or less) in order to maximise the amount of data gathered
for the Appleby tests over two to four weeks.
Paul comments, "In over 20 years of successfully using Tinytags
I've seen improvements in data capacity and battery life. The
introduction of new sensors in the Tinytag range, such as the CO2
logger, has also increased the possibilities for relatively low
cost monitoring, particularly when a small number of sensors are
required in a domestic setting."
Tinytag Re-Ed loggers are designed to work flexibly with a range
of third party sensors. The latest range of Tinytag Instrumentation
data loggers has now replaced the Re-ed units, providing voltage,
current and count loggers for use with third party sensors in order
to provide accurate and robust data loggers for specialist
applications such as this.
The image shows the front elevation of the building with
sensors. Credit: Heritage England.